Journal of Applied Animal Research
Vol. 27 No. 2 June, 2005
AGRIS Database, Biosis Database, CAB Abstracts,Chemical Abstracts, CURRENT
CONTENTS (AB and ES), Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Indian Science
Abstracts, RESEARCH ALERT, SCISEARCH)
Influence of infectious bursal disease and chicken anemia vaccines on the
development of cellulitis and myositis lesions in cage-reared broilers
Kenneth S. Macklin, James T. Krehling and Robert A. Norton (USA)
Digestibility of forage diets of white-tailed deer
(Odocoileus virginanus, Hays) using different ruminal fluid inocula
||F. Clemente, E.
Riquelme, G.D. Mendoza, R. Bárcena, S. González and R. Ricalde (México)
Determination of the effects of fish vs
plant vs meat protein-based diets on the growth and health of rainbow
||Shah Rahnema, Ron
Borton and Eric Shaw (USA)
acid profiles of different tissues in mature trout (Salmo trutta
macrostigma) from Pulur Creek in Karasu Region, Turkey
||H.¤. Halilo—lu. A.
Bayir, A.N. Sirkecio—lu and N.M. Aras (Turkey)
|Effect of age on
the carcass traits and meat quality of turkey poults
||S. Majumdar, S.K. Bhanja, R.P.
Singh and S.K. Agarwal (India)
value of fresh swine excreta for growing pelibuey sheep
||J.J. GCantón, R. Belmar-Casso
and C.A. Sandoval-Castro (México)
Influence of plant cover on dietary selection by goats in the Mixtec Region
of Oaxaca, Mexico
||F.J. Franco, G.A. Gómez, G.D.
Mendoza, R. Bárcena, R. Ricalde, F. Plata and J. Hernández (México)
Relationship between kappa-casein polymorphism and production traits in
Brown Swiss and Holstein
||Memis Özdemir and Ünsal Do—ru
in the intestinal mucosal structure following oral administration of
triiodothyronine (T3) in broiler chickens
||M. Teshfam, H. Nodeh and M.
of fan ventilation system and spraying of oil-water mixture on the levels of
dust and gases in caged layer facilities in Eastern Turkey
||Bahar Kocaman, A. Vahap
Yaganoglu, Mete Yanar (Turkey)
reproductive performance of goats as a function of growth traits and
reproductive performance early in life
||M. Mellado, J.
Mellado, J.E. García and R. López (México)
|A comparison of
different selection indices for genetic improvement of some dairy milk
traits in Holstein Friesian cows in Turkey
||Hulya Atil (Turkey),
Adel Salah Khattab (Egypt) and Yakut Gevrekci (Turkey)
heart glycoconjugates by noise stress in mouse as an experimental model
||M.Z. Monsefi and T.
affecting milk production and post partum body weight of fat-tailed Norduz
ewes in Turkey
||Mehmet Bingöl, Turgut
Aygün, Özdal Gökdal and Ayhan Yilmaz (Turkey)
of Infectious Bursal Disease and Chicken Anemia Vaccines on the Development
of Cellulitis and Myositis Lesions in Cage-Reared Broilers
Chengming Wang1*, Kenneth S. Macklin2,
James T. Krehling1
Robert A. Norton2
1Department of Pathobiology
2Department of Poultry Science
Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
(Received November 18, 2004; accepted March 31, 2005)
Wang, C., Macklin, K.S., Krehling, J.T. and Norton, R.A.
2005. Influence of infectious bursal disease and chicken anemia vaccines on
the development of cellulitis and myositis lesions in cage-reared broilers.
J. Appl. Anim. Res., 27: 65-69.
The present set of experiments was designed to explore
the influence of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and Chicken Anemia
Virus (CAV) vaccines on the development of cellulitis and myositis in
broiler chickens. On day of hatch, broiler chickens were randomly placed
into one of four treatment groups. The control group birds were not
vaccinated. In order to induce immunosuppression, chickens were given either
IBDV vaccine (group 2) on day 12 or CAV vaccine (group 3) on day 19 or both
(group 4). On day 31 all four treatments were challenged with a mixture of
Clostridium perfringens, C. septicum and Staphylococcus aureus.
Seven days post-challenge all of the birds were euthanized and necropsied.
All the vaccinated birds (groups 2, 3 and 4) experienced a significantly
higher incidence of cellulitis and myositis lesions. A high frequency of
positive antibody titers against IBDV was noted, but the antibody response
was lower for CAV. Immunosuppressed chickens have a greater probability of
developing cellulitis and/or myositis than non-immunosuppressed chickens.
Key words: Chicken, cellulitis, myositis, infectious
bursal disease, chicken anemia virus.
Digestibility of Forage Diets of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus
virginanus, Hays) using Different Ruminal Fluid Inocula
F. Clemente1, E. Riquelme2, G.D.
Mendoza1,3#, R. Bárcena1,
S. González1, R. Ricalde3
1Colegio de Postgraduados, Programa de
Montecillo, México, Km 36.5 Carr. México-Texcoco
Edo. de México, 56230 México
2Universidad de Puerto Rico, Campus Mayagüez
3Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana
Unidad Xochimilco, 04960 México D.F.
(Received May 20, 2004; accepted January 20, 2005)
Clemente, F., Riquelme, E., Mendoza, G.D., Bárcena, R.,
González, S. and Ricalde, R. 2005. Digestibility of forage diets of
white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus, Hays) using different
ruminal fluid inocula. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 27: 71-76.
Ruminal inocula obtained from goat, cow and feral and
captive deer were used to determine in vitro dry matter digestibility
(IVDMD) of forages and diets consumed by white tailed deer in a temperate
forest in Mexico. No differences (P>0.05) in IVDMD were detected using
different inoculum sources. The IVDMD (%) of gramineae component of diet was
lower (P<0.05) for deer ruminal fluid (feral 23.0, captive 28.0) than that
from domestic ruminants (cow 31.9, goat 31.5). Correlation coefficients
results using ruminal fluids from feral deer and domestic ruminants were
high (0.97-0.99). The IVDMD of the forage diets varied significantly among
plant groups and seasons and was 48% (summer), 32% (fall) and 29% (winter).
Ruminal fluid from domestic ruminants can be used to estimate digestibility
of forages consumed by feral white tailed deer.
Keywords: Odocoileus virginanus, white-tailed
deer, diet, digestibility, in vitro digestibility.
Determination of the Effects of Fish vs Plant vs Meat
Protein-based Diets on the Growth and Health of Rainbow Trout
Shah Rahnema, Ron Borton, Eric Shaw
The Ohio State University Agricultural Technical Institute
Wooster, Ohio 44691-4000, USA
(Received November 18, 2004; accepted June 8, 2005)
Rahnema, S., Borton, R. and Shaw, E. 2005. Determination
of the effects of fish vs plant vs meat protein-based diets on
the growth and health of rainbow trout. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 27: 77-80.
One hundred eight fingerling rainbow trout were used
in an experiment to compare feed consumption, growth rate, gain-to-feed
efficiency and live and carcass characteristics for rainbow trout receiving
diets containing fish meal (FM), plant protein (PP), or feather meal and
meat meal (FMMM), based diets. Six trout were housed in an 18" x 18" x 22"
cage (18 total cages) and nine of these cages (three per treatment) were
placed in each of two 1000-gallon tanks. Fish were fed twice per day all the
feed that they would eat within 30 min. Feed consumption and fish weights
(by cage) were measured once every other week. At the end of the feeding
trial, one fish from each cage was harvested, frozen in water and stored at
-25C. The left half of each trout was excised, wrapped in aluminium foil and
baked in an oven at 163C for 30 min. The trout were then divided into
approximately 1.0 cm3 cubes (about 20 g) and presented to the
panel for evaluation of flavour, off flavour, tenderness, juiciness and
overall acceptability of the meat. The right half of each trout was excised
and used for laboratory analyses of moisture, fat, ash and protein content.
The Ca content of the PP was lower than FM and FMMM diets. Fish consuming
the PP diet had consumed less feed (P<0.00) and had a lower average daily
gain (P<0.02) than the fish on FM or FMMM diets. Feed-to-gain ratios for PP
and FM diets were similar and both were lower (P<0.00) than that of the FMMM
diet. There were no differences due to treatment for moisture, fat, crude
protein or ash content of the trout. Trout fed the FM diet were juicier and
tenderer than the trout fed the PP diet. It is concluded that a meat scrap
ration may substitute for the commercial fish meal ration if it is
Key words: Trout, plant protein, feather meal, meat meal.
Profiles of Different Tissues in Mature Trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma)
from Pulur Creek in Karasu Region, Turkey
H.¤. Halilo™lu*, A. Bay2r, A.N. Sirkecio™lu,
Department of Fishery Sciences
25240 Erzurum, Turkey
(Revised received September 30, 2004; accepted December 1,
Halilo™lu, H.¤., Bay2r, A., Sirkecio™lu, A.N. and Aras,
N.M. 2005. Fatty acid profile of different tissues in mature trout (Salmo
trutta macrostigma) from Pulur Creek in Karasu Region, Turkey. J. Appl.
Anim. Res., 27: 81-84.
The fatty acid composition of some tissues of wild
salmon (Salmo trutta macrostigma Dumeril, 1858), caught from Pulur
Creek of Karasu Basin was investigated. The highest total saturated fatty
acid content was in gonad and the lowest value was in liver, the difference
being significant (P<0.05). On the contrary, the highest n-3 polyunsaturated
fatty acid was found in liver and lowest in adipose tissue (P<0.05).
Monounsaturated fatty acid content was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the
adipose compared to other tissues. The n3/n6 ratio was highest in muscle.
Key words: Fatty acids, n-PUFA, fish, Salmo trutta
Age on the Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Turkey Poults
S. Majumdar1, S.K. Bhanja1, R.P.
Singh2, S.K. Agarwal1
1Turkey Research Unit
2Post Harvest Technology Division
Central Avian Research Institute
Izatnagar-243 122, India
(Revised received February 21, 2005; accepted May 2, 2005)
Majumdar, S., Bhanja, S.K., Singh, R.P. and Agarwal, S.K.
2005. Effect of age on the carcass traits and meat quality of turkey poults.
J. Appl. Anim. Res., 27: 85-88.
To study the slaughter age effect on carcass
characteristics and meat composition 8 poults from each age group ie. 6, 8,
10, 12 and 14 weeks were slaughtered. There was a progressive increase in
ready-to-cook (eviscerated carcass including giblets) yield from 71.2% at
6th week to 77.9% at 14th week of age. Bony parts viz. back, neck and wings
showed a decline, whereas, thigh part increased with increasing age of
birds. Although the breast portion of turkey had higher proportion of meat
(80.2%) than thighs (77%) at 6th week of age, the same tended to a
progressive decline with a corresponding increase in thigh meat yield during
subsequent growing periods. No consistent trends were observed in the meat
yields of bony parts such as back, wings and neck. Shear force values of
both leg and breast meat progressively increased with increase in age of the
poults. It is suggested that turkey poults may be slaughtered from 8 weeks
Key words: Carcass yield, meat composition, shear force,
age, turkey poults.
Value of Fresh Swine Excreta for Growing Pelibuey Sheep
J.J. GCantón,a R. Belmar-Casso,b
aCampo Mocochá, INIFAP-SAGAR, Apdo, 4-100, C.P.
97121, Mérida, Yuc., México
bFac. Med. Vet. y Zoot. Univ. Autónoma Yucatán. Apdo. 4-116. C.P.
97100. Mérida, Yuc., México
(Revised received May 25, 2005; accepted June 6, 2005)
GCantón, J.J., Belmar-Casso, R. and
Sandoval-Castro, C.A. 2005. Nutritive value of fresh swine excreta
for growing pelibuey sheep. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 27: 89-94.
To study the utilization of fresh swine excreta (FSE)
in growing Pelibuey sheep two experiments were carried out. In the first
experiment, twelve male sheep (20±1.7 kg) were allocated in a randomized
block design to four diets containing 0 (D0), 200 (D20), 400 (D40) and 600
(D60) g FSE/kg dry matter (DM). Water and DM intake as well as the
digestibility of DM, organic matter (OMD), crude fibre and gross energy (GE)
were higher (P<0.05) for the D0 diet, although OMD was similar (P>0.05) for
D0 and D60 diets. N balance was similar (P>0.05) for D0, D20 and D60 diets.
In the second experiment, rumen fermentation pattern and 48h in situ
rumen DM degradation of Cynodon nlemfluensis were studied in four
Pelibuey sheep fed similar diets as in experiment 1 in a 4 x 4 Latin square
design. Plasma urea and NH3 were higher (P<0.05) in D0 diet,
although NH3 was not different from D60 diet (P>0.05). Total VFA
and its molar proportion were similar for all diets. Rumen pH was lower
(P<0.05) for the D60 diet. No effect was found on DM degradation, rumen
outflow and rumen turnover rates. It was concluded that FSE is a valuable
source of nitrogen for sheep and it can be fed up to levels of 600 g/kg DM.
Key words: Fresh swine excreta, Pelibuey sheep, nitrogen,
digestibility, rumen fermentation.
Influence of Plant Cover on Dietary Selection by Goats in the Mixteca
Region of Oaxaca, Mexico
F.J. Franco1, G.A. Gómez2, G.D.
Mendoza3,4, R. Bárcena3, R. Ricalde4,
F. Plata4, J. Hernández1
1Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla
2Facultad de Veterinaria Universidad de Córdoba
Departamento de Producción Animal
Campus de Rabanales
3Colegio de Postgraduados
Programa de Ganadería, Montecillo
Km 36.5 Carr. México-Texcoco Estado de México
4Departamento de Producción Agricola y Animal
Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco
(Received August 20, 2004; accepted December 11, 2004)
Franco, F.J., Gómez, G.A., Mendoza, G.D., Bárcena, R.,
Ricalde, R., Plata, F. and Hernández, J. 2005. Influence of plant cover on
dietary selection by goats in the Mixtec Region of Oaxaca, Mexico. J. Appl.
Anim. Res., 27: 95-100.
This research was conducted to study grazing time and
to determine the relationship between the vegetable cover (arboreal, shrubs)
and degree of preference by transhumance goats in six rangelands in the
Mixteca region of Oaxaca, Mexico. Grazing time and number of bites was
recorded by direct observation during summer, autumn and winter. Three
preference levels of vegetable cover were established. A total of 65 species
were selected: 52% had a frequent consumption coinciding with abundance and
48% were occasionally consumed related to low availability. Shrubs were the
main plant preferred (57.2%), followed by forbs (40.5%), whereas, trees were
the least preferred (2.2%). A positive relationship was observed between the
degree of use and species cover in the rangelands (r=0.703, P<0.001). Plant
cover, particularly from trees and shrubs, determines the degree of use by
goats in the Mixteca rangelands.
Key words: Goat, diet selection, grazing behaviour, plant
Relationship Between Kappa-casein Polymorphism and Production Traits in
Brown Swiss and Holstein
Memis Özdemir, Ünsal Do—ru
Department of Animal Science
College of Agriculture
25240, Erzurum, Turkey
(Received April 16, 2004; accepted January 26, 2005)
Özdemir, M. and Do—ru, Ü. 2005. Relationship between
kappa-casein polymorphism and production traits in Brown Swiss and Holstein.
J. Appl. Anim. Res., 27: 101-104.
To study the effect of kappa-casein polymorphism on
milk production traits, milk samples from Brown Swiss, Holstein and East
Anatolian Red cows were analyzed for kappa-casein, AA, AB and BB variants
using horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis. Differences among breeds
studied were not significant on gene variants. Although the effects of
kappa-casein phenotypes on fat percentage and 305d fat yield in Brown Swiss
and Holstein cows were found to be significant (P<0.01 and P<0.05,
respectively), there was no effect on milk yield, 305d milk yield, lactation
period and milk fat yield. This study provides evidence that production and
percentage of fat ratio can be maximized by the use of kappa-casein BB
genotype and milk production by the use of kappa-casein AB genotype with
selective goal in herds and increase in frequency of kappa-casein B genes in
herd could contribute to significantly improve yield traits.
Keywords: Kappa-casein, genetic polymorphism, cow,
production traits, genetic marker.
in the Intestinal Mucosal Structure Following Oral Administration of
Triiodothyronine (T3) in Broiler Chickens
M. Teshfam1, H. Nodeh1, M.
1Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and
2Department of Clinical Sciences
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
University of Tehran, Iran
(Revised received November 18, 2004; accepted February 4,
Teshfam, M., Nodeh, H. and Hassanzadeh, M. 2005.
Alterations in the intestinal mucosal structure following oral
administration of triiodothyronine (T3) in broiler chickens. J.
Appl. Anim. Res., 27: 105-108.
It had been shown that in response to thyroxine
administration, some structural changes can occur in the mucosa of the
intestine. These changes are specially imposed on the proliferation and
differentiation of the intestinal cells. To study this, one hundred and
fifty chickens were randomly divided into two equal groups and the diet of
one of them was supplemented with 1.5 ppm T3. At the end
of 6th week T3 administration decreased intestinal villus
height in the duodenum and increased the intestinal crypt depth, which
seemed to be the sign of increase in cell proliferation. The number of
leaf-shaped villi was significantly reduced while that of the tongue-shaped
villi significantly increased throughout the intestine in T3-treated
Keywords: Triiodothyronine (T3), intestine,
villus, crypt, chicken.
of Fan Ventilation System and Spraying of Oil-Water Mixture on the Levels of
Dust and Gases in Caged Layer Facilities in Eastern Turkey
Bahar Kocaman1, A. Vahap Yaganoglu1,
1Department of Agricultural Engineering
2Department of Animal Sciences
College of Agriculture
25240, Erzurum, Turkey
(Received April 16, 2004; accepted March 27, 2005)
Kocaman, B., Yaganoglu, A.V. and Yanar, M. 2005.
Combination of fan ventilation system and spraying of oil-water mixture on
the levels of dust and gases in caged layer facilities in Eastern Turkey. J.
Appl. Anim. Res., 27: 109-111.
To reduce harmful gases such as CO2, NH3
and H2S and dust in caged layer houses in Eastern Turkey,
spraying of sunflower oil-water mixture and fan ventilation were
investigated. It is demonstrated that these treatments together may improve
air of the caged layer houses.
Key words: Caged layer houses, dust, gases, oil-water
Reproductive Performance of Goats as a Function of Growth Traits and
Reproductive Performance Early in Life
M. Mellado*, J. Mellado, J.E. García, R. López
Department of Nutrition and Feeds
University Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro
Saltillo, Coah. 25315, México
(Received September 28, 2004; accepted May 10, 2005)
Mellado, M., Mellado, J., García, J.E. and López, R.
2005. Lifetime reproductive performance of goats as a function of growth
traits and reproductive performance early in life. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 27:
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the
association between reproductive performance of 476 dairy goats in their
first reproductive cycle with reproductive efficiency late in their life.
Does with an initially high body weight at birth (>3.2 kg) subsequently
produced litters that were 6% larger than does with <2.7 kg at birth. Does
with the higher weight gains as kids, had litters that were 8 and 15%
heavier at birth and at 25 d of age throughout adult life than goats with
the lowest gains during the first month of life. Does that gave birth to
multiples in their first reproductive cycle subsequently had 10% more
(P<0.01) average kids per doe joined, and 8% more (P<0.01) litter weight at
birth/doe joined than does that had single kids at their first reproductive
opportunity. It was concluded that managing for optimum doe weight as kids
and strict culling of does with lighter litters at birth or at 25 d of age
during their first kidding seems to be a practical option to improve
lifetime reproductive performance in dairy goats without nutritional
Key words: Litter weight, litter size, birth weight,
fertility, reproductive rate, goat.
A Comparison of
Different Selection Indices for Genetic Improvement of Some Dairy Milk
Traits in Holstein Friesian Cows in Turkey
Hulya Atil1, Adel Salah Khattab2,
1Department of Animal Sciences
Faculty of Agriculture, Ege University
2Department of Animal Production
Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University
(Received June 5, 2004; accepted March 10, 2005)
Atil, H., Khattab, A.S. and Gevrekci, Y. 2005. A
comparison of different selection indices for genetic improvement of some
dairy milk traits in Holstein Friesian cows in Turkey. J. Appl. Anim. Res.,
A total of 1680 first lactation records of Holstein
Friesian cows sired by 206 bulls maintained at five herds in Turkey were
used to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for 305 day milk yield
(305 dMY), lactation period (LP) and age at first calving (AFC). Data were
analysed using Multiple Trait Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood
(MTDFREML). The model included the fixed effects of herd, season and year of
calving and parity, AFC as a covariate and individual and residual as random
effects. Genetic correlations between 305 dMY and AFC; and LP and AFC were
0.90 and -0.95, respectively. Phenotypic correlations among all traits
studied were generally similar to the corresponding genetic correlations.
Index I1 incorporating 305 dMY, LP and AFC was the best (RIH=0.75).
It is recommended that selection should be exercised at the end of the first
Key words: Selection index, milk traits, Holstein
Heart Glycoconjugates by Noise Stress in Mouse as an Experimental Model
M.Z. Monsefi1, T. Talaei2
1Department of Biology, School of Science
2Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine
University of Medical Sciences
(Received June 30, 2004; accepted January 20, 2005)
Monsefi, M.Z. and Talaei, T. 2005. Changes of heart
glycoconjugates by noise stress in mouse as an experimental model. J. Appl.
Anim. Res., 27: 121-124.
To determine if glycoconjugates of a developing heart
would change after noise exposure, forty-eight pregnant mice were exposed to
the noise (100 dB) for 150 minutes per day from 2nd day of gestation to 7th
day after birth. The new borns were sacrificed at deep anesthesia at the
first, 7th and 14th days of their lives and their hearts were removed and
stained with lectins (BSA1-B4, DBA, PNA and WGA). The
mice with the same ages were also elected as control group. No histological
changes were observed by light microscope, but some changes were noticed in
the intensity of the reactions only to BSA1-B4 in
endocardium, myocardium and pericardium of one and seven days old mice. This
may be related to the increase in expression of galactose containing
glycoconjugates when exposed to noise and these alterations in carbohydrates
may lead to physiological malfunction during their life.
Keywords: Heart, glycoconjugates, lectin, noise.
Affecting Milk Production and Post Partum Body Weight of Fat-Tailed Norduz
Ewes in Turkey
Mehmet Bingöl*, Turgut Aygün, Özdal Gökdal1,
Department of Animal Sciences
Yüzüncü Y2l University
(Received August 7, 2004; accepted May 7, 2005)
Bingöl, M., Aygün, T., Gökdal, Ö. and Y2lmaz, A. 2005.
Some factors affecting milk production and post partum body weight of
fat-tailed Norduz ewes in Turkey. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 27: 125-127.
This study was conducted to determine some traits of
milk production and post partum body weights of Norduz ewes in Van-Norduz
provinces. Overall means for lactation period, lactation milk production and
post partum body weight were 174 days, 178 liters and 58 kg, respectively.
Only post partum body weight was affected (P<0.05) by age of ewe or
parturition type. The Norduz ewe has been recommended for milk production.
Key words: Milk production, lactation period, body
weight, post partum, ewe, Norduz.