Journal of Applied Animal Research
Vol. 25 No. 2 June, 2004
AGRIS Database, Biosis Database, CAB Abstracts,Chemical Abstracts, CURRENT
CONTENTS (AB and ES), Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Indian Science
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of resting and feeding behaviour for cows milked by an automatic milking
system versus by a milking parlour
||M. Spolders, U. Meyer, G.
Flachowsky and M. Coenen (Germany)
Crude protein degradation of some energy
feeds measured by nylon bag technique
|L. Turgut, M. Macit and M.
Crystalline amino acid
supplementation of grain sorghum-based low protein diets for
|R.O. Myer and D.W. Gorbet (USA)
Anthelmintic treatment of goats on
an arid range and its effect on milk production in late lactation
|M. Mellado, H. González, J.E.
Garía and R. García (Mexico)
Prediction of body weight from body
measurements in Morkaraman sheep
|M. Topal and M. Macit (Turkey)
Effect of diet forage-to-concentrate ratio
on partition of dietary energy and nutrients in fed and fasted sheep
|H. Sano, T. Ito and Y.
Effect of dehydrated pig faeces in the
ration on rumen degradability, kinetics of passage and in vivo
digestibility in Holstein steers
|J.R. Salcedo-Meza, R.
Castellanos-Molina, J.D. Garza-Flores, Z.I. Tejada-Castañeda, J.C.
R. Rodríguez-Vázquez and J.C. Ku-Vera (Mexico)
Pharmacokinetic study on interaction between tetracycline
|H. Rajaian, J. Jalaei and A.
Laying performance, serum lipoproteins,
cholesterol and triglyceride of hens as influenced by dietary fat sources
|S. Celebi and N. Utlu (Turkey)
Environmental and breed effects on
test day milk yields of dual-purpose crossbred cows under tropical
conditions of México
|M.M. Osorio and J.C. Segura
Determination of some blood
parameters of fingerling sturgeon (Huso huso) in Guilan province of
|D. Shahsavani and M. Mohri
of Resting and Feeding Behaviour for Cows Milked by an Automatic Milking
System versus by a Milking Parlour
M. Spolders1, U. Meyer1, G. Flachowsky1,
1Institute of Animal Nutrition
Federal Agricultural Research Centre
Bundesallee 50, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany
2Institute of Animal Nutrition
School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover
Bischofsholer Damm 15
D-30173 Hannover, Germany
(Received February 9, 2004; accepted May 6, 2004)
Spolders, M., Meyer, U., Flachowsky, G. and Coenen, M. 2004.
Comparison of resting and feeding behaviour for cows milked by an automatic
milking system versus by a milking parlour. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 25:
This study deals with the influence of an automatic
milking system on animal behaviour (especially feed intake, lying behaviour
and stress condition) as compared to a conventional milking parlour. These
influences were studied in three experiments with German Holstein dairy cows
kept in a cubicle house. Harmonized with the milking procedures, roughage
intake was spread more evenly over the day when cows were milked
automatically. After feeding, roughage intake of cows milked automatically
varied in a narrow range (0.5 to 0.8 kg per cow per hour) than for cows
milked in the parlour (0.45 to 1.1 kg per cow per hour). An effect of
feeding time on feed intake was observed for both milking systems. Fewer
cows rested in the cubicles per hour when they were milked automatically.
The high ranking cows preferred a few number of lying cubicles for resting,
whereas cows with a lower ranking rested in nearly all lying cubicles. Cows
which were milked in the automatic milking system were shown to have an
average cortisol concentration of 5.07±3.15 ng/ml in blood serum, as
compared to 2.73±1.10 ng/ml for those milked in the parlour. Although not
significant, the results may indicate a tendency towards increased stress
for the cows milked automatically.
Degradation of Some Energy Feeds Measured by Nylon Bag Technique
Leyla Turgut, Muhlis Macit, Mevlüt Karao™lu
Department of Animal Science
College of Agriculture
25240, Erzurum, Turkey
(Received August 12, 2003; accepted May 10, 2004)
Turgut, L., Macit, M. and Karao™lu, M. 2004. Crude protein
degradation of some energy feeds measured by nylon bag technique. J. Appl.
Anim. Res., 25: 81-84.
This study was carried out to determine degradability of
crude protein (CP), feed value parameters (a, b, a+b and c) and effective
crude protein degradability (ECPD) by in sacco (nylon bag) technique
for some commonly used energy feeds (barley, wheat, wheat bran) produced in
Erzurum province. Three ruminally cannulated Morkaraman rams of 2 years were
used in this research. The energy feeds were incubated for 2, 4, 8, 16, 24
and 48 h. Effective degradability were calculated using rumen outflow rate
(k) (0.05/h) coefficient obtained from Neway P.C. package program. Results
obtained by the nylon bag technique indicated that the crude protein
degradability values at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 h seem lower in barley than in
wheat and wheat bran but wheat grain had higher values at all of the
incubation periods except for at 2 h than those of wheat bran and barley.
The crude protein degradability values of wheat and wheat bran at 8, 16 and
24 h incubation periods are close to each other.
Amino Acid Supplementation of Grain Sorghum-Based Low Protein Diets for
Robert O. Myer,* Daniel W. Gorbet
University of Florida
North Florida Research and Education Center
Marianna, FL 32446, USA
(Received January 2, 2004; accepted May 05, 2004)
Myer, R.O. and Gorbet, D.W. 2004. Crystalline amino acid
supplementation of grain sorghum-based low protein diets for
growing-finishing pigs. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 25: 85-90.
A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of
crystalline lysine, threonine, methionine and tryptophan supplementation of
grain sorghum based, low protein diets for growing and finishing pigs (from
31 to 114 kg avg. body wt.). Three similar trials, each with 60 crossbred
pigs were done and each involved a comparison of nutritionally adequate
grain sorghum-based diets formulated with 1) soybean meal (47%) as the
supplemental source of amino acids (control) or with 2) L-lysine HCI, L-threonine,
DL-methionine and L-tryptophan plus enough soybean meal to meet the
requirements of the other amino acids. Overall, dietary treatment had no
effect (P>0.10) on average daily gain, average daily feed intake, feed
conversion efficiency, average loin area, backfat thickness or estimated
carcass lean percentage. Overall average daily lean gain, however, was lower
(P<0.10) for pigs fed the low protein, amino acid supplemented diets
compared to pigs fed the control diet. Results indicated that the diet crude
protein concentration can be reduced substantially upon amino acid
supplementation with no detrimental effect on pig growth performance,
however, there was some evidence of decreased lean gain.
Treatment of Goats on an Arid Range and its Effect on Milk Production in
M. Mellado, H. González, J.E. Garía, R. García
University Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro
Department of Nutrition and Feeds
Saltillo, Coah, 25315, México
(Received May 21, 2003; accepted February 20, 2004)
Mellado, M., González, H., García, J.E. and García, R. 2004.
Anthelmintic treatment of goats on an arid range and its effect on milk
production in late lactation. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 25: 91-95.
The effect of a single anthelmintic treatment (ClosantelR;
subcutaneously at 8.0 mg kg-1 BW) on milk production and its
composition, live weight change and blood chemistry in mix-bred goats was
studied in an arid zone of northern Mexico. Twelve adult goats towards the
end of lactation (120 d; end of the rainy season) were treated, whereas ten
adult goats were used as untreated controls. Fecal egg count (FEC) in the
treated group dropped 93% (P<0.01) 21 days after treatment, but this FEC
reduction did not affect liveweight change, milk yield and milk composition.
These data suggest a high resilience of the host against the sub-clinical
nematode infection, therefore, in this area goat milk producers are likely
not to be benefited economically by using anthelmintics.
of Body Weight from Body Measurements in Morkaraman Sheep
Mehmet Topal1*, Muhlis Macit2
1Department of Biometry
2Department of Animal Science
College of Agriculture, Atatürk University
(Received August 12, 2003; accepted April 21, 2004)
Topal, M. and Macit, M. 2004. Prediction of body weight from
body measurements in Morkaraman sheep. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 25: 97-100.
In this research, linear regression models were used for
estimation of body weights from various body measurements in Morkaraman
sheep. Simple and multiple regression models were fitted with body weight
(BW) as dependent variable and body length (BL), heart depth (HD), height at
wither (HW), chest width (CW), heart girth (HG) and pump width (PW) as
independent variables. The model including heart girth was the best fitted
simple regression model (R2p=0.752, MSEp =10.944,
Cp=8.771) and the model including heart girth and pump width was the best
fitted multiple regression model (R2p=0.784, MSEp
=9.678, Cp=1.846). The highest correlation (0.867) was determined between HG
and BW and the lowest correlation (-0.014) was determined between CW and BL.
According to variance inflation factors, multicollinearity among body
measurements was not determined.
Effect of Diet
Forage-to-Concentrate Ratio on Partition of Dietary Energy and Nutrients in
Fed and Fasted Sheep
H. Sano1*, T. Ito1, Y. Terashima2
1Faculty of Agriculture
Morioka 020-8550, Japan
2Faculty of Animal Science
Towada 034-8628, Japan
(Received April 26, 2003; accepted April 30, 2004)
Sano, H., Ito, T. and Terashima, Y. 2004. Effect of diet
forage-to-concentrate ratio on partition of dietary energy and nutrients in
fed and fasted sheep. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 25: 101-108.
A total collection method and open-circuit calorimetry
were used to measure partition of dietary energy and protein and nutrient
oxidation in sheep fed on a high roughage diet (HR diet) or a high
concentrate diet (HC diet). Fasting metabolism was also determined.
Digestible and metabolizable energy intakes did not differ between the
diets. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide and methane emissions were
similar in both diets and decreased (P=0.0001) during fasting. Digestible
nitrogen (N) intake was greater (P=0.03) for the HC diet, whereas N balance
remained unchanged due to enhanced (P=0.005) urinary N excretion. Heat
production was similar in both diets and decreased (P=0.0002) during
fasting. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation did not differ between the diets,
whereas protein oxidation was greater (P=0.02) for the HC diet than for the
HR diet. During fasting protein oxidation remained unchanged, carbohydrate
oxidation decreased (P=0.0003) and fat oxidation tended to increase
(P=0.08). In this study, type of diet influenced energy and protein
partition in sheep. However, these results were not entirely attributed to
type of diet because energy and protein intakes influenced these variables.
Dehydrated Pig Faeces in the Ration on Rumen Degradability, Kinetics of
Passage and in vivo Digestibility in Holstein Steers
aJ.R. Salcedo-Meza*, aR. Castellanos-Molina,
bJ.D. Garza-Flores, cZ.I. Tejada-Castañeda, dJ.C.
Segura-Correa, aR. Rodríguez-Vázquez, dJ.C. Ku-Vera**
aCINVESTAV-Instituto Politécnico Nacional
Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508
Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07300, México, D.F.
Km 1 Carretera Colón-Ajuchitlán
Apdo. Postal 29A; C.P. 76260, Querétaro, México
Km 15.5 Carretera México-Toluca
Col. Palo Alto, C.P. 05110, México, D.F.
dFacultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán
Km 15.5, Carretera Mérida-Xmatkuil
Apdo. Postal 4-116 Itzimná, C.P. 97100 Mérida, Yucatán, México.
(Received April 23, 2003; accepted February 8, 2004)
Salcedo-Meza, J.R., Castellanos-Molina, R. Garza-Flores,
J.D., Tejada-Castañeda, Z.I., Segura-Correa, J.C., Rodríguez-Vázquez, R. and
Ku-Vera, J.C. 2004. Effect of dehydrated pig faeces in the ration on rumen
degradability, kinetics of passage and in vivo digestibility in
Holstein steers. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 25: 109-116.
To assess the effect of 20, 25, 30 and 35% dehydrated pig
faeces (DPF) in rations based on sorghum and cane molasses four Holstein
steers in a 4 x 4 Latin square design were fed 2.6 kg DM/100 kg LW/day.
Rumen degradability for DM and OM of DPF among rations did not differ
(P>0.05). Potential degradation of DM and CP of sorghum straw was improved
(P<0.01) when the level of DPF in the ration was increased. Effective
degradability for DM and CP of DPF increased gradually (P<0.01) with levels
of DPF. The lowest extent of OM effective degradability (P<0.01) was
observed at the highest (35%) level of DPF in the ration. Effective
degradability for CP of sorghum straw increased (P<0.01) and that for DM and
OM changed (P<0.01) only at the highest level of inclusion of DPF. Rate of
passage of digesta through the reticulo-rumen decreased linearly (P<0.01)
with the inclusion of DPF. In vivo digestibilities for DM, OM, ADF
and NDF decreased and for CP increased with graded levels of DPF in the
ration (P<0.01). In conclusion, DPF can be included up to 35% of DM in the
ration of beef cattle, without negatively affecting rumen fermentation.
Performance, Serum Lipoproteins, Cholesterol and Triglyceride of Hens as
influenced by Dietary Fat Sources
Saban Celebi, Necati Utlu1
Department of Animal Science
College of Agriculture
(Received on August 12, 2003; accepted March 13, 2004)
Celebi, S. and Utlu, N. 2004. Laying performance, serum
lipoproteins, cholesterol and triglyceride of hens as influenced by dietary
fat sources. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 25: 121-124.
There were five dietary treatment groups. Control group
was fed with basal diet without added fat (CO), experimental groups were fed
on a diet supplemented with 2% of either of tallow (TO), a mixture of tallow
and flaxseed oil (1:1 w/w) (MTFO), sunflower oil (SO) and flaxseed oil (FO).
Fat supplementation improved egg production (P<0.01), FO and SO
supplementation increased serum HDL and decreased total cholesterol (TCOL),
low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein
cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). These results suggest that
dietary FO and SO may be a valuable ingredient to layers for reducing serum
TG and increasing serum HDL-C without any adverse effect.
Environmental and Breed Effects on Test Day Milk Yields of Dual-Purpose
Crossbred Cows under Tropical Conditions of Mexico
M.M. Osorio1, J.C. Segura2
1Campus Tabasco del Colegio de Postgraduados
AP 24 Cárdenas Tabasco, México
2Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán
Km 15.5 Carretera Mérida-Xmatkuil
AP 4-116, Mérida, Yucatán, México
(Received April 23, 2003; accepted February 6, 2004)
Osorio, M.M. and Segura, J.C. 2004. Environmental and breed
effects on test day milk yields of dual-purpose crossbred cows under
tropical conditions of México. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 25: 125-128.
To determine the effects of some environmental factors
and genotype on test day yield (TDY) of milk of cows under a dual-purpose
system, 5566 TDY records from 321 lactations of dual-purpose crossbred cows
(233 Holstein x Zebu and 88 Holstein x Sahiwal lactations) from an
experimental station of the Colegio de Postgraduados at Cardenas, Tabasco,
Mexico were used. Data were classified according to the following factors :
year of calving (1992-1999), season of calving (dry, rainy or windy and
rainy), parity (1, 2, 3 or 4, 5 or more), genotype (Holstein x Zebu,
Holstein x Sahiwal) and 21 levels of DIM interval. The average TDY was 9.46
kg±2.14 kg of milk/day. All factors explored, except season of calving,
affected milk yield (P<0.01), Holstein x Zebu cows produced on an average
996g more milk/day than Holstein x Sahiwal cows. The highest TDY was
observed during the rainy season of calving.
Determination of Some Blood Parameters of Fingerling Sturgeon (Huso
huso) in Guilan Province of Iran
D. Shahsavani, M. Mohri
Department of Clinical Sciences
School of Veterinary Medicine
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Mashhad 91775-1793, Iran
(Received May 21, 2003; accepted February 15, 2004)
Shahsavani, D. and Mohri, M. 2004. Determination of some
blood parameters of fingerling sturgeon (Huso huso) in Guilan
province of Iran. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 25: 129-130.
To study the normal blood picture of fingerling sturgeon
(Huso huso), blood samples from 120 fingerling fishes (3-5 g) were
analysed. These had 0.881x1012/l RBC, 30% PCV, 67.3 g/l Hb,
340.52 fl MCV, 76.39 pg MCH, 22.43% MCHC, 4.284x109/l WBC, 20.56%
heterophil, 75.82% lymphocyte, 2.20% eosinophil, 0.342% monocyte, 0.742%
band cell, 0.336% metamyelocyte.